Hello All in this article I have mentioned the Constitutional development of India in Pre Independence Era. Gradual development in constitutional provision India has achieved a milestone and made the people of India free to taking their decision.
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|how many charter act in India|
how many act in india East India company of Britain came to India for trading purpose in 1600. After taking Dominion over the economic sector of India territory company’s lust increased to become to super power in political dimension of India.
After Many wars within India Indian territory the Battle of Buxar in 1764 became the most crucial segment of company’s journey to the mastery of the political power .
After the buxer victory company got the Diwani power of Bengal Bihar and Orissa provinces .After the buxer victory company gradually start the system of dualism government.Film times in general the importance of Buxar battle was much crucial regarding the political dimension mastery of company over Indian territory.
Buxar War fought between the side of Mir Qasim shuja Ud daulah and Mughal emperor Shah Alam second with side of English company lead by Hector Munro. Pitts India act Warren Hastings how many amendments in Indian constitution, how many acts in Indian constitution, how many act in Indian constitution how many law in India
Dual government in Bengal 1765 to 1772
Robert Clive start the system in Bengal. dual government include both the Diwani power (revenue )and Nizamat power( police and judicial).
Faults in dual government system
company focused his mind set towards earnning very much hence forth did not care towards the administration, social and other economical area gradually the company became richer day by day but the condition of people become much inferior day by day.Aur bringing the few order and law into the company's business British government decided to legislate the company gradually.
Regulating act of 1773
- Prime minister was lord north at that time
- appointment of governor general along with 4 Counselor in Presidency of Fort William called as governor general in Council
- Warren Hastings appointed as governor general
- establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta with sir as Elijah Impey as first chief justice
- Court has both the Civil and criminal jurisdiction.
- governing Council of Bombay and Madras brought under control of Bengal it was especially in foreign policy
- it has permit the company to keep back its territorial possession in India.
- it has not given the complete power to company hence called as regulating act. ultimately we can conclude that it was the first step toward parliamentary control over the company .
Pitt's India Act 1784
It was introduced to rectifying the defects of regulating act 1773. it has following provision
- creation of Board of Control consisting of 6 members chancellor of exchequer secretary of state and 4 privy Council was nominated by king.
- secretary of state's become the President of Board of Control.
- Board of Control have the power of controlling all the matter regarding civil or military or government or revenue .
- in the context of dual control ground was represented by Board of Control and company was represented by Court of directors.
- there was establishment of secret committee consisting of three directors which had to transmit the orders of boats of India.
- the governor of presidencies of Calcutta given greater power than Madras and Bombay.
- alteration in governor general in Council was held in this context the number of member reduced to 3.
- this act was also called as East India Company Act 1784.
Charter Act 1813
- extension of companies rule to another 20 years.
- abolition of monopoly of East India company in India only the Monopoly in trade with China and trade in tea with India was keep safe.
- companies dividend was fixed at 10.5% per annum.
- this act also promoted Christian Missionary is in India.
- there was a provision for investing 1 lakh per annum in education sector.
Charter Act of 1833
- governor general of Bengal made as governor general of India all the military and civil power vested in him
- Lord William Bentinck became the first Governor General of India
- this act legalized the British colonization of India in did the activities of of company as commercial body
- this act introduced system of open competition for selection of Civil Servant and it stated that Indians should not the word for holding any office and any employment under company
- Indian Law Commission was established under this act Lord Macauley was first Chairman
- it has given the authority to governor general in Council to amend The Appeal or alter any law under British Indian territories
- direction to governor general in Council to adopt measure to mitigate the slavery system in India.
Charter Act 1853
- This Act was passed during Lord Dalhousie governor general ship
- this act empowered East India Company to retain territories and revenue in India in terest for Crown not for any specific period.
- addition of six new members in Council called as Legislative Council 12 in total
- Governor general could nominated vice president to councill and his assent is required for all legislative action.
- First time it's separated executive and legislative function of governor generals Council
- board of director reduced from 24 to18.
- Which act introduced and open competition system of selection and recruitment of civil servants. This service was thrown open to Indians too.
- law member (fourth member) become a full member with right Store.
- This act was foundation of modern Parliamentary form of Government.
Government of India Act 1858
- This act ended the dual government initiated due to Pitts India Act.
- this act ended the controversial Doctrine of Lapse.
- Indian civil service was to be constituted for administration of the country.
- secretary of state in Council was set up as a body.
- companies Court of directors powers transferred to secretary of state for India.
- appointment of viceroy as the representation of British crown. Lord Canning was the first Viceroy.
- this act fixed India as direct British Colony.
- it is also known as act for good government of India.
Indian Council act of 1861
- decentralization power trends initiated by this act centralising power that began from 1773 to 1833 were reversed
- this act recognised Portfolio system
- this act empowered Viceroy to issue ordinance without consent of of legislation, the validity of ordinance was 6th month period.
- this act provided for the establishment of Legislative Council for Bengal, North western Frontier province and Punjab
- policy of Legislative devaluation resulted in Grant of almost complete internal autonomy to provinces.
Indian Council act 1892
- power of Legislative Council was increased member could now discuss budget without right to put on it they were not allowed to ask supplementary question.
- act provided for additional member in central as well as provincial Legislative Council.
- provincial Legislative Council function were enlarge.
- system of indirect election was introduced to elect the member of Council.
- governor general in Council was empowered to make rule for nomination of member.
Indian Council act 1909
- it enlarged the the deliberative function of Legislative Council at both the level
- elected members were to be indirectly elected.
- it retained official majority in Central Legislative Council but allowed provincial legislation.
- this act introduced the communal representation system for Muslims .
Government of India Act 1919
- Act made the governor general the chief executive authority there was the executive Council of voice consisting of eight member in which there were three Indians.Governor general could restore cuts in grants my bills rejected by central legislature.
- This act also called Montague chelmsford reforms.
- introduction of dyarchy in provincial subject which is divided into two lists first is transferred and second is Reserve list.
- transferred list consisting of education,health,local government etc and reserved list consisting of law and order,Finance,land revenue etc
- this act introduced bicameral legislature. the legislature was under this act could now ask question and supplementary,pass adjournment motions and vote a part of the budget but 75% of the budget was still not votable.
- legislature was addressed by the viceroy .he could call for adjournment, meetings or repeal the legislature.
- The central government enjoyed on restricted control over the the provincial government although certain restriction were imposed on the central legislature. the legislature of India could not changed or reverse any law passed by British Parliament.
- women were also given the rights to vote.
- system of communal and classic electorate was keep safe.
- legislature enjoyed freedom of speech Legislative Council could reject the budget but Governor could restore it.
Government of India Act 1935
- It consists of 321 sections and 10 schedule this was the longest act passed by British Parliament and was later split into two parts Government of India Act 1935 and government of Burma act1935.
- it has following provision.
- introduction of diarchy at centre and abolition of provincial dyarchy.
- provision for an all India Federation with British India territories and princely states.
- introduction of an advisory body in its place and abolition of Indian Council.
- Supremacy of British Parliament.
- elaborate safeguard and protective instrument for minorities.
- establishment of Federal Court.
- Establishment of Central Bank.
- separation of Burma from India.
- retention of communal electorate.
Indian Independence Act 1947
- It splits British India into India and Pakistan.
- Pakistan was to comprise the East Bengal, West Punjab,Territories of the Sind, North West frontier provinces,Territories of the Sindh, Syllhat divisions of Assam, Bhawalpur, khairpur, Baluchistan and 8 other princely states of Baluchistan.
- there was provision of the partition of Punjab & Bengal and separate boundary commissions to demarcate the boundaries between them.
- Both the dominions of India and Pakistan were to have Governor Generals to be appointed by the British King. there will same Governor Genral in case of agreement.
- Governor general have the adequate powers until March 1948 to issue orders for effective implementation of the provisions of the Indian independence act 1947.
- civil servants who had been appointed before the August 15, 1947, will continue in service with same privileges.