Saturday, September 2, 2023

Indus Valley Civilization | Features Of Indus Valley Civilization

Indus valley civilization

Hello all Indus valley civilization is much vital regarding understanding the initial starting of Indian history. Indus Era is much crucial to compare Modern era with respect to socio-economic culture of Modern society. As individual we can learn from this civilization how we evolve into Modern system .Seeing the basic requirements of Indus valley civilization in today's competative environment this article will be very helpful to memorizing the fact and understanding the evolvement of Harppan Civilization

indus valley civilization
harppa civilization

Indus valley Civilization

  • Its Known as Harppa civilization too. In 1921 team lead by John Marshal one of the Indian Archeologists Dayaram Sahni started excavating from Harppa.
  • Its Known as the Name of Sindhu valley civilization.
  • Many scholar has given opinion in PreIndependence era of india that the people of Mesopotamia had developed the Indus valley civilization.
  • Although in modern/recent reserach asserted that Its the role of local culture which flourished the Indus valley civilization.
  • As there are many fundamental difference in the Mesopotamia and Indus valley civilisation eg. town planning,Lipi/script differences etc.
  • Although trade connection with Mesopotamia has given crucial contribution in Urbanisation development of Indus valley civilization.
  • It flourished around in between 2400 BC to1700 BC in the western region of South Asia. this time period found by Radiocarbon dating technique.
  • Only six city considered As the Big/large city in Indus valley civilization.
  • After Independence of India most of Indus valley civilization sites found in Gujrat.

Geographical Expansion of Indus Valley Civilization

Afghanistan

 

Badkhshaan, Mundigak

Pakistan

Baloochistan

Mehargarh,on the coast of Makraan, Sutkagendor, Sotkakoh

 

Sindh

Mohanjodro,Aamri,Kotdiji,Chanhudaro,Rahmandheri

 

Punjab

Harppa

India

Gujrat

Dhaulavira,Surkotda,Desalpur,LOthal,Rangpur,Rojdi

 

Jammu

Maanda

 

Punjab

Ropar

 

Rajsthan

Kalibanga

 

Haryana

Banawali,Rakhigarhi

 

UttarPradesh

Aalamgirpur,Maandi

 

Mahrashtra

Daimabad

Foreign trade in Indus valley Era

Imported Goods

  Region/State

Silver

      Afghanistan,Iran

Gold

   Iran,Karnatka,Afghanistan

Copper

        Khetdi,Oman,Baluchistan

Tin

    Iran,Afghanistan

Plumbum  

    Iran

Lapis Lazuli

Mesopotamia

Agate

     Saurashtra

Important Indus valley civilization Sites and their Excavator

Important Sites

River

Excavator and Year

Kalibanga

Ghagghar

     B.B.Lal and V.K.Thapar (1953)

Harppa

    Rabi

   Dayaram Sahani and Madhorup(1921)

Aalamgirpur   

   Hindon

Yagyadutta Sharma (1958)

Lothal

   Bhogwa

  Rangnath Raav (1955 and 1962)

Mohanjodro  

Sindhu 

Rakhaldaas Benrgee (1922)

Rangpur  

     Maadar

Rangnath Raav(1953-1954)

Ropar

      Sutlej

Yagyadutta Sharma (1953-1956)

Sutkagendor

Daashk 

George Delles,Auraje style(1927 and 1962)

Banawali

Rangoi

    Ravindra Singh Visht(1990)

Kotdiji

  Sindhu

  Fazal Ahmed(1953)

Chanhudaro

        Sindhu

Gopal Majumdar (1931)

Political system of Harappan civilization

  • On the behalf of many evidences from different different sites it's considered that it there will  must be any central government.  for example town Planning, Clay pots, water evacuation etc.
  •  on the Behalf of the town planning there was a possibility of the local governance in existence in Indus valley civilization.
  • There is possibility that the role of traders In political system and administration was crucial in Indus valley civilization. 

Economic system of Harappan civillization

  • Agriculture sector There is the evidence of wheat and barley from Harappa, Barley from Banawali, rice from Lothal ,Plowline from Kalibanga And Citadel from Dholavira.
  • Animal Husbandry  There is the evidence of buffalo, dog, cow, goat, camel etc .controversy in the evidence of the Horse.
  • Craft there is the evidences of craft in many numbers. knowledge of solid bricks, evidence of rawbricks from Kalibanga.
  • Pots there is evidences of the large numbers of claypots, depiction of red and black Colour on pots.
  • Knowledge of Metals like copper, Brass, gold, silver etc but not of Iron.
  • Ornaments there was evidences of ornaments in the large numbers like artefact of ivory(evidences of ivory from Lothal and Mohanjodro).
  • Bead Industry was the most popular . there is the evidences of Bead from Lothal and Chanhudaro.most probably beads used in manufacutring of Ornamental and the identity of animals.
  • Seals Evidences of seals are found in much city of Harppa civilsation.there is large number of seals found from Mohanjodro.Its used in identity of goods and information aabout Harppan religion,script etc.
  • Trades evidences of internal and external trades found like as import of copper from Khetri and import of Tin from Iran and Afghanistan.
  • Coins there is no evidences of trends of coins.
  • Transportation Both the Land and sea transportation evidences found. evidences of Dockyyard from Lothal,Brass chariot from Daimabad.

 Harappan city represents the First Urbanisation City of Indian Subcontinent . Its knowns as Brassian Urbanisation.

Harappan society

  • Like the later periods it is difficult to say anything with respect to the cast and varna system but it is easy to estimate the different classes on the basis of evidences such as rulers, traders, workers, farmers etc .
  • At the same time in a quality in some form or the other must have been prevalent in society success the difference in the construction of the houses, ornaments of different types of metals are taken as evidence.
  • A large number of clay sculpture associated with women, evidence of goddess worship, evidence of various type of ornaments etc tell us about the better position of women in the society
  • The food was both vegetarian and nonvegetarian.evidence of Dance, Drum, Veena etc are the indication of the means of entertainment there is also evidences of the object.
  • (evidences of the piece of cotton cloth and stone sculpture is found from Mohanjodaro)
  • Town Planning of Harppan civilisation of the matter of attraction. Building built by solid bricks was much number in city of Harppa.
  • Town Planning, cuts of roads by Right Angle, goods of measure and weights etc are evidences of the Scientific Temprament. Although about the education there is not any such authentic evidences.
  • Purdah system and Prostitution was prevalent. Harppan era was important due to Matriarchal system in Society.
  • Evidences of keeping drains covered in cities, proof of cleanliness etc gives message of awareness.
  • evidences of difference difference species from Mongolyard and Mediterenian region, diversities in burial system. Most probably unity in diversity was crucial and important segment of this civilisation's thesis.

Notes

  • Funeral was famous in complete,partial and cremation form.
  • evidence of burial system of both men and women together from Lothal.
  • evidence of burial in woods coffin from Harppa.
  • Evidence of burning from Mohenjodaro .

Religion of Harappa 

  • Evidences of goddess worship on the basis of the evidence obtained such as the extraction of a plant from the fetus of the Goddess with the seal of Harappa. Possibly the practice of worshipping the mother goddess was in prevailing. A large number of clay sculpture belonging to women were seen associating with it.
  • The Ghost of Shiva worship on the basis of evidence. evidence of a large number of Shiva Lingas, evidence of Humped Bull corroborate this fact. Seal from MohenjoDaro depicts a men seated in Yogi posture surrounded by various animals. Its identified as Aadya Shiva.
  • On the basis of evidences ,Religious importance of Peepal(Ficus religiosa) tree, water etc has been estimated.
  • Evidences of a large number of beads, evidences of burial of objects with that person etc.  superstition and ghosts pointing to the reincarnation.
  • There is evidence of Fire Pits from Lothal, KaliBanga and Banawali.The evidences of Bones from Kalibanga.
  • Many features related to Harappan religion are also visible in Vedic period such as Nature worship,Fire worship, Funeral rites, reincarnation etc.
  • Evidences of idols is found from Harappan sites but nothing is clear about their worship. similarly, there is no clarity in terms of place of worship, religious texts, method of worship, priesthood.

Painting

image source- © www.harappa.com

  •  Evidence of Harappan paintings is mainly obtained from Pottery. Red and Black colour have been used more.
  •  The subject of the painting is related to the nature and common life. the tradition of painting on utensils has continued even further. it may have had commercial importance.
  • The main subject related to the paintings have been Vegitation, animals, birds etc.

Architecture and Town planning of Harappan civilization

  • Town planning of Harappa is not famous only in Indian history but also famous in world history.
  • Harappan city was divided into two parts Western and Eastern. Exceptions are Lothal and Banawali there was no division in its  and Dholavira was divided into three parts.
  • Western part was citadel and there was evidences of usage of buildings in large scale. example granary, Auditorium, public Bathroom from MohenjoDaro.
  • Perhaps the ruler lived in these buildings and they used it for public and private objectives.
  • Portion of eastern part was comparatively greater than western part. the entrance of the buildings was in the direction of of streets  not in the direction of main roads.
  • The main characteristic of Harappan city was the creation of road in well planned manner which divided the city into the rectangular form. In modern city these features can be seen.
  • Water Evacuation system was also seen in the Harappan era. it can be understand by Linking with it cleanliness and sanitation. Indus Valley Civilization considered to have best city in contemporary of other City.
  • Although there was few limitations of Harappan city was also present such as fixture of Technology, formation of city e on the river bank, formation of city in in earthquake affected area.

Notes-

  • There was no evidence of Citadel in Aamri, Kotdiji and Sindh.
  • There is the evidences of Citadel in lower City of KaliBanga. Here only clay bricks used in the formation of buildings.

 Sculpture

  • There was the evidences of sculpture of stones,metals and clay from different different places.
  • Evidences of sculpture of stones found from Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, In which a man was soon in beard and muffle with sheets.
  • There was a sculpture of Brass and Copper found from MohenjoDaro, Lothal, Daimabad and other places. Sculpture was both of human and animal. Dancing idols and Bull idols of brass found from Mohenjodaro. In creation of of the idols Fluid wax Technology was used.
  • The idols of clay was Found in large numbers in which Different different toys, animals and birds, men and women  Idol with the the pots were found.

 Note-

  • There was the large number of Humped Bull Idols among animals and large number of women idols in comparative with men.
  • Clay idols was the resource to understand the the entertainment, religious rituals of contemporary society.

Downfall in Harppan Civilization

Archeological evidences proved that there was No immediate destruction of the Indus Valley Civilization but it declined over a period of time and got mixed with other civilizations of that period.

Drastically increasing in the climatic change and natural disaster such as decreasing in the average rainfall in the cities implies decline in agriculture etc. 


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