Hello all the topic Biodiversity is very important for understanding the environmental activities and conservation of flora and fauna
As there is vast number of species over the world Their conservation is much vital for sustainable livelihood and development of all species
I hope you all will understand this topic holistcly Its also much vital for exam
Biodiversity defined as the variety of Living Organism on the earth. it consists of fungi, animals, plants, bacteria etc. the amount of diversification is much much high on this earth. many organism has not discovered till yet. many organism facing threat and extinction due to the few natural activity and mostly due to the man made activities.
according to the scientist there are appointment 8.7 millions of plant species and animal species. in which approximate 1.3 millions species has found and described. the number of insects is highest among all species on the earth.
the term biodiversity is used for the defining huge diversity species or individual lives on this earth. Biodiversity consist of much inequality over the world. for example- South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Madagascar, south western part of USA have More diversity to the rest of the world.
In United Nations Earth summit 1992 the definition of biodiversity is described as the variety e e among living organism from all source consisting of marine ecosystem, Terrestrial ecosystem and aquatic ecosystem and other complexes of the ecology. it includes diversity within, between and among the ecosystem.
we can see that existence or Promotion of sustainable development of biodiversity if we conserve and use it it by better method.
levels of biodiversity-
Three level of biodiversity is referred as Genetic diversity, species diversity and Ecosystem diversity.
it is related with the variation in the gene within specific organism or species.
it makes permissible to species for the adapting to the variation in the environment.
existence of individual species ascertain the existence of population.
it is related to the variation of living species.
it refers to Proportion in the number of individual species over the total population of the species in biome.
if the number is zero then it is called infinite diversity among the species and if the number is 1 then there exists only one species.
In this variation habitats present. Habitat is basically agglomerative factors of vegetations, climate and regional geography.
for example- wetland; corals grassland mangrove forest are the example of ecosystem
changing in the climate change occurs in the vegetation too. In this condition species become predominant to the changed environment.
Thus we can say that if there is changes in the pattern of climate then individual species influenced by this situation.
Measurement of the Biodiversity-
Biodiversity measured by mainly two type -
Species richness and species evenness
In case of species richness it measure the number of species in the given ecosystem. it consists of three type -
i) Alpha diversity
ii) Beta diversity
iii) Gamma diversity
i) Alpha diversity-
Alpha diversity mainly measured diversity within specific ecosystem; Alpha diversity represented by in that specific ecosystem.
ii) Beta diversity-
Its basically compare between two different ecosystem; it's measure the changing in the amount of species in the given two specific ecosystem
iii) Gamma diversity-
It is the measurement of the holistic diversity for the different different community in a specific region
Causes of biodiversity loss
biodiversity loss occurs when specific species is extinct completely or the habitat of this specific species destroyed which is essential for the survival of the species
destruction of species occurs due to the many reasons like food, for earning or sports activity etc
it is occurs due to the natural disaster too many other environmental reasons are the responsible for the destruction of biodiversity
natural reasons which are responsible for the biodiversity losses are bad competition among the species, landslides, floods,lack of pollination etc
many human made reason that destruct the biodiversity are poaching hunting grazing etc
Conservation of the biodiversity-
Conservation of the biodiversity occurs by two method
1) Ex- situ conservation-
In this type of conservation, conservation occurs outside the area where they are naturally present
for example reintroduction of a plant or animal is an example of ex situ conservation
introduction referred as introduction or conservation of the specific species into another habitat where this species becomes extinct
Reintroduction of Gangetic river Gharial into the river Ganga at Hastinapur wildlife sanctuary of Uttar Pradesh
In this method conservation occured in the natural habitats of the plants and animals
example of natural habitats are National Park, Wild life sanctuary, Reserved forest, Biosphere reserve, Protected forest etc
Its basically a established places for the conservation of flora and fauna
In past days zoo is considered as the places of entertainment Its governed by the regulation of the central zoo authority
Central Zoo Authority-
- Its statuory body under Ministry of Environment forest and climate change (MoEFCC)
- Its chaired by Environment Minister
- Its constituted in 1992 under Wildlife Protection Act 1972
Red Data Book-
Its consists of the data of threatened species of flora and fauna Its continously monitored and updated by the IUCN
The term Red is symbol of threat that both the flora and fauna experience currently throughout the world
IUCN (International Union for the conservation of nature)-
- Its esatblished in 1948
- Its Headquarter is based on Switzerland
- Its Key indicator for Sustainable Development Goals and AICHI targets